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备战2022高考英语,除了3500词,你还需要把这些内容学好才上“战场”(速收)

更新时间:2021-11-25浏览:评论: 条

高考主谓一致的知识结构

主谓一致,是指主语和谓语在人称和数的形式上要保持一致性。
一、语法一致

1. 以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用第三人称单数形式:

His father is working on the farm.

To study English well is not easy.

What he said is very important for us all.

Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

 

主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数形式:

The children were in the classroom two hours ago.

 

2. 由连接词 and 或 both … and 连接起来的合成主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词:

Lucy and Lily are twins.

She and I are classmates.

The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news.

Both she and he are Young Pioneers.

 

3. 主语为单数名词或代词,尽管后面跟有 with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including 等引起的短语,谓语动词仍用第三人称单数形式:

Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China.

Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground.

She,like you and Tom,is very tall.

 

若主语为复数,谓语用复数形式:

The Greens, together with their only daughter, have come to China.

 

4. either, neither, each, every 或 no+单数名词和由 some, any, no, every 构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待:

Each of us has a new book.

Everything around us is matter.

 

5. 在定语从句中,关系代词 that, who, which 等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致:

He is one of my friends who are working hard.

He is the only one of my friends who is working hard. 

 

6. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数;如果它指集体的成员,其谓语动词就用复数形式。这些词有 family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience 等等。

Class Four is on the third floor.

Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.

 

7. 由 “a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of +名词” 构成的短语以及由 “分数或百分数+名词” 构成的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定:

There are a lot of people in the classroom. 

The rest of the lecture is wonderful.

50% of the students in our class are girls.

 

8. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。

There comes the bus.

On the wall are many pictures.

Such is the result.   

Such are the facts.

 

二、逻辑一致

1. what, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数,也可是复数,主要靠意思来决定。

Which is your bag?

Which are your bags?

All is going well.  

All have gone to Beijing.

 

2. 表示 “时间、重量、长度、价值” 等的名词的复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用第三人称单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体。

Thirty minutes is enough for the work.

Ten miles is too long.

 

3. 若主语是书名、影片名、格言、剧名、报刊名、国家名等,不要受到其表象复数形式的干扰,其谓语动词通常还是要用第三人称单数形式。

“The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book.

The United States produces more than $ 16 million worth of radiochemicals.

The Philippines has just 6,000 square kilometres of forest left.

 

4. 表数量的短语 “one and a half” 后接复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词可用第三人称单数形式,也可以用复数形式:

One and a half apples is left on the table.

I think one and a half kilos are enough.

 

5. 算式中表示数目的主语通常作单数看待,其谓语动词采用第三人称单数形式

Twelve plus eight is twenty.

Fifty-six divided by eight is seven.

 

6. 一些学科名词是以 –ics 结尾,如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及 news, works 等,实际意义都是单数名词,它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式

The paper works was built in 1990.

I think physics isn't easy to study.

 

7. trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, jeans 等词作主语时,谓语用复数形式,但如果这些名词前有 a(the) pair of 等短语修饰时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式

My glasses are broken.

The pair of shoes under the bed is his.

 

8. “the + 形容词或分词”,表示某一类人时,动词用复数形式:

The old are taken good care of.

 

9. a (large) quantity of 修饰可数或不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式

A large quantity of people is needed here.

但是,

Quantities of food (nuts) were on the table.

 

10. a great deal of, a large amount of 修饰不可数名词 作主语时, 谓语动词通常用第三人称单数形式:

A large amount of (A great deal of) damage was done in a very short time.

 

注意:

large amounts of 修饰不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式:

Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge.

 

三、就近一致

1. 当两个主语由 either … or,  neither … nor, whether … or …, not only …but also 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语保持一致:

Either the teacher or the students are our friends.

Neither they nor he is wholly right.

Not only you but also I am planning to go.

 

2. there be 句型的 be 动词的单复数形式取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由 and 连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致:

There is no place like home.

There are both advantages and disadvantages.

There is a pen and two pencils on the desk.

There are two chairs and a desk in the room.

注意:

Here开头的句子,用法跟 there be 句型一样:

Here is a map and a handbook for you.

 

【真题再现】
1.(2019•江苏卷•单项填空)The musician along with his band members _____ ten performances in the last three months.

A. gives            B. has given  

C. have given   D. give

【解析】考查现在完成时与主谓一致。句意:在过去的三个月里,这名音乐家与他的乐队成员已经完成了十场演出。由 “in the last three months” 可知,这句话的时态为现在完成时,故排除A、D选项。本句主语为the musician,为第三人称单数形式,句中的 “along with his band members” 是附加成分,故谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。故选B。

 

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